At the MOFFA Winter Meeting – soil health tops the agenda

Screen Shot 2015-02-25 at 6.21.58 PMFace it. Most humans treat soil like. . .well dirt. At USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), there is a new urgency for people to know more about our soil, as good soil is disappearing due to erosion, compaction and loss of organic matter. NRCS has created a new Soil Health Division to focus on education. Maryland Organic Food and Farming Association (MOFFA) attendees were fortunate to have the Division’s new Chief, Dr. Bianca Moebius Clune, to be the featured speaker at their Winter Meeting.

Of course, organic farmers must know and appreciate the value of healthy soil. But withoutScreen Shot 2015-02-25 at 7.04.55 PM  being able to use herbicides, most organic farmers have to till their soil. Dr. Cline says that intensive tillage is “like a little earthquake” for the soil. It breaks up soil structure, damages the biota, and can compact soil and reduce absorption. It can even affect pest management. For organic farmers, some tillage is inevitable to reduce weed pressure, but they can take actions to reduce the impact and they can monitor the conditions of the soil.

Dr. Clune provided information on how to take shovel tests to check for  compaction and how to evaluate the roots for soil health and where to send your soil for testing to get a more complete analysis of soil condition, such as the Cornell Soil Health Assessment.

She urged farmers to get in touch with local NRCS offices for assistance and to  be aware of the EQIP Organic Initiative that “provides financial assistance to implement a broad set of conservation practices to assist organic producers in addressing resource concerns including, but not limited to assistance with:

  • Developing a conservation plan
  • Establishing buffer zones
  • Planning and installing pollinator habitat
  • Improving soil quality and organic matter while minimizing erosion
  • Developing a grazing plan and supportive livestock practices
  • Improving irrigation efficiency
  • Enhancing cropping rotations and nutrient management”

To learn more contact Lindsay Haines, Lindsay.haines@wdc.usda.org, an EQIP program specialist.

 

Posted in Maryland Organic Food and Farming Association, MOFFA, Organic farming, soil health, Sustainable Farmers, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

CSAs — new data and two workshops

In its report to congress this month, the USDA noted that farms that are selling food directly for human consumption have a greater survival rate than farms who market through wholesale channels. They have a lower debt-to-asset ratio which gives them better ability to repay loans. Perhaps more significantly, they capture practically the whole food dollar, rather that the typical 10% that the average U.S. farmer gets.

There may be another factor as well – the farmer-consumer connection. As an example, IMG_0008_2Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) shares represent a bond or commitment between buyer and producer. The buyer gets the freshest food and gets to learn how that food is produced. The producer gets upfront money to produce the crop and a willingness from the buyer to work through the challenges and joys of crop production. Through that relationship often comes a desire for the farmer to succeed. A similar connection is formed at farmers markets. That type of bond or connection does not exist when consumers buy their produce or meats at the chain grocery store.

CSAs have become one of the most effective ways for farmers to reconnect with the consumer. The concept dates all the way back to 1982, according to Mother Earth News. Back then, Dr. Booker Whatley described a system where “…The clientele membership club is the lifeblood of the [farm]. It enables the farmer to plan production, anticipate demand, and, of course, have a guaranteed market. The farmer has to seek out people—city folks, mostly—to be members of the club.”

DSCN2892A hundred years ago, fresh food was supplied locally from gardens and by mom and pop stores throughout the country. Then came grocery chains and improved transportation systems that provided a wider variety of canned and packaged foods at cheaper prices. After WWI, the chains also began selling meat, milk and produce and local farmers lost their place on grocery shelves. Local produce farmers could not supply year-round production. Local livestock farms were replaced by large-scale operations concentrated in a few states. Grocery chains preferred to work with large-scale suppliers.

However, in the USDA report, it was noted that direct-to-consumer prices are lower than grocery store prices in all four seasons. With high tunnels, farmers are stretching their food production seasons. And livestock producers are now able to sell the products from their farms and at farmers markets.

Of course the key is having consumers who are committed to the local food system. Many have figured out over time that the convenience of a major food chain is not everything. They are concerned that in the race to industrialize farming, some food production operations have sacrificed freshness and taste and/or created greater impacts on the environment and on workers.

To maintain that strong relationship with the consumer, farm practices need to be transparent, they need to provide a good product, and they need to follow good business practices. Two workshops are being held in the next few weeks about Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) labor issues and membership agreements between consumers and CSA operators: February 26th in Frederick and March 3rd in Annapolis.

Let’s keep that local food connection going strong!

 

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Ready to try value-added? Start here.

Sometimes, farm profitability is just one value-added step away. Lots of farmers have the great ideas, but they lack the support to get there.

Jeff

Jeff Williams

On February 5th, the Maryland Agricultural Marketing Professionals (AMPs) met to discuss how to help farmers can take their products to the next level and I got to sit in. We heard from Jeff Williams, Program Specialist at Rural Business-Cooperative Service (Jeff.Williams2@de.usda.gov) and he filled us in on USDA’s Value-Added Producer Grant. Last year, Maryland farmers did well, garnering $2 million out of $21 million in grant money available across the U.S. However, ten good Maryland farms were not successful, so Jeff advised the AMPs what farmers should know  to improve their chance of success.

Romano

Romano Vineyard & Winery is one of the farms that made a successful proposal

He said that the 50 page application may seem daunting but it is intended to provide all the necessary information and advice to compete. Two of the main reasons for failure are requesting non-eligible funds (clearly identified in the application) and weak or incomplete applications and budgets. There is a 50% local match, but there are many ways to meet that requirement.

One option is to seek assistance from the Maryland Agricultural & Resource Based Industry Development Corporation (MARBIDCO).

Steve McHenry

Steve McHenry

Steve McHenry, Executive Director of MARBIDCO, was also a presenter at the AMPs meeting and he goes out of his way to support farmers. For example the USDA Value-Added Producer Grant application notice and deadline varies each year. To assist Maryland farmers who may want to use MARBIDCO funds as a match, he informs farmers that his deadline is 2-weeks prior to the federal deadline, whenever that is. That helps the farmers put together a good draft application (which Jeff Williams is willing to review ahead of time) while he and his staff have time to review the application for a possible MARBIDCO match.

MARBIDCO helps farmers stepping up to value-added in three other ways.

1. Local government Ag/RBI cost share programs. Applications for this program must be submitted by a county or regional economic development director or an agricultural marketing specialist.

2. Maryland Urban Agriculture Commercial Lending Incentive Grants (in municipalities). It is offered with the financial support of Farm Credit and is designed to meet the financing needs of beginning urban farmers by providing an incentive for them to seek commercial lender financing for the development of their agricultural enterprises. The maximum amount of the grant is $7,500.

3. Maryland Value-Added Producer Grants. Capital asset-type projects designed to help farmers, forest product operations, and seafood processors to expand or diversify their business operations.

An announcement for the USDA Value-Added Producer Grant is expected in the next couple of months and you can find out more about MARBIDCO’s grants on it’s website.  Value-added dreamers, sharpen your pencils!

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A small farm revolution?

For the title of this blog, I borrowed a chapter title from John Ikerd’s book Small Farms are Real Farms. In that book, he strongly defends the role that small farms play in their communities and the signs he sees of their renaissance.

IMG_0380

Lindsey Lusher Shute

In the last few years, new voices have risen along with his, for the advancement of small farms. Lindsey Lusher Shute, President of the National Young Farmers Coalition, and previously featured in my blog, is one of those voices. I was fortunate to be present when she spoke at the Future Harvest CASA Conference last month and she also stopped by the Maryland FarmLINK booth to chat.

During her keynote, Lindsay told about her passion for small farms and the challenges that she and her husband faced when starting one. She said that her farming adventure began on a one-acre portion of a dairy farm in the Hudson Valley region. Owners had told their children to do something else besides farming and now the owners were nearing retirement.

However, they welcomed two energetic young people to their farm. Eventually the owners

Owners and crew at Hearty Roots

Owners and crew at Hearty Roots Community Farm (from website)

began to see a future in farming after witnessing their successes and their will to succeed. Later, that farm was preserved by the children. But when the family decided to sell the farm, the Shutes realized that the price of the land was way out of reach and they had to look for other land to lease. Eventually, they were able to purchase a smaller parcel, now Hearty Roots Community Farm,  where they have a large Community Supported Agriculture CSA operation.

By the time that they had purchased the farm, they had come to realize that small farms had few advocates and no one was helping the next generation of farmers. They hosted a group of young farmers to discuss the challenges that beginning farmers face and, around the kitchen table, they decided to form a national group, the National Young Farmers Coalition, to represent their interests. The Coalition’s mission — “We envision a country where young people who are willing to work, get trained and take a little risk can support themselves and their families in farming.” It has grown to 50,000 members.

At the conference, Lindsay also spoke about a NYT article “Don’t Let Your Children Grow Up To be Farmers” that caused me such angst that it prompted a blog response.  Lindsey had the same reaction, and drew similar conclusions. The author’s impression may be correct that many hardworking, small-scale farmers are struggling to make a living, but she would never advise her children not to farm. There is more to life than a good salary, though it sure helps!

Screen Shot 2015-02-05 at 6.07.03 AMNearly all farms in Maryland are categorized as small farms. Small farms are real farms and John Ikerd’s book is inspiring. His vision and message are consistent with that of Wendell Berry and our country’s founding fathers. Small farms are the cornerstone of a strong society. They are good for the environment, good for communities, good for local economies. Ikerd also acknowledges that under the current system, many small farms are not profitable, but he says not to dismiss them. In the end, he says that “sustainable small farms are better alternatives than getting bigger, giving in, or getting out. . . It’s time for a small farm revolution in America.”

We all need to work a little harder for their success.

 

 

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The Appalachia Region Gets it!

Md40At the Appalachia Grows Conference last weekend, I sensed a resolve to make the local food system work. Garrett County already has a food hub – the Garrett Growers Cooperative, Inc. It has been primarily selling to restaurants,but Extension Agent Willie Lantz said that they have been working with Frostburg State University to sell food to the cafeteria there too. At the evening dinner held for beginning farmers, attendees were treated to a tasty dinner of locally sourced food provided by the cafeteria.

A high tunnel vendor at a nearby table said that farmers in the Appalachia region, particularly West Virginia, were actively using the resources of the USDA NRCS Season High Tunnel Initiative to help them grow food in their region. Local food keeps the money in the local economy and it creates jobs, which the Appalachia Region sorely needs.

Willie Lantz featured in youtube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3v2twYri9P4

Willie Lantz featured in youtube video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3v2twYri9P4

Frostburg Grows is a very cool project that won a 2014 Sustainability Growth Award from the Maryland Sustainable Growth Commission. They have taken deserted, mined land  and turned it into an “innovative 5-acre greenhouse and shade house complex designed to train community members for high quality jobs while producing local food and tree seedlings.” Solar panels provide the energy to pump rainwater collected off the high tunnels to water the plants inside the tunnels.

Between census years 2007 and 2012, the number of farmers under 35 grew by 20%. At the conference, there was a great deal of interest in marketing strategies to sell direct to the consumer and in ways to get access to more land, much of which is more affordable than in the rest of the state.

That quiet resolve to succeed was evident in the faces of the attendees. I look forward to a return of the Appalachia Grows Conference next year to see how they have progressed.

 

 

Posted in access to farmland, beginning farmers, food hubs, Frostburg Grows, Garrett Growers Cooperative, locally sourced food, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

Saving family farms in Maryland – level access to markets

Screen Shot 2015-01-22 at 7.10.19 AMThis blog is the last in a series on saving family farms in Maryland. In the first blog, I highlighted the need for beginning farmers. In the second and third blogs, I addressed access to land and infrastructure needs. In this blog, I discuss how to create a level access to markets.

The local food movement has given us hope that we can maintain family farms in Maryland. For decades, I have heard of farmers telling their children that there is no future in farming. That attitude is changing. Now more farm children are returning to farms. And clearly, more people care about family farms and want to know how their food is grown.

However, the playing field is not level. Recently, National Public Radio covered an 18-month investigation by a reporter from the Los Angeles Times which described working conditions on mega-farms in Mexico.  According to the reporter, the mega-farms are mistreating workers and paying them $8 to $12 per day, hardly on par with regulations and expectations in the U.S. The story also noted that major U.S. food chains are purchasing from these farms.

Farmers in Maryland face additional challenges in trying to provide more locally-sourced food.  In the 19th century, and early 20th century, most grain, canning and food processing operations left the state and local health regulations were not designed for small scale food processing operations. Meanwhile, chain stores out-competed local food markets in the 20th century. Few locally owned stores still exist and local farmers have a tough time negotiating square deals with most chain stores.

Without local food stores, farmers selling retail were literally kicked to the curb. If farmersScreen Shot 2015-01-22 at 6.32.12 AM wanted to sell the food themselves, they had to sell at roadside stands or in farmers markets, where local zoning would permit them. In commercial shopping centers, chain grocery stores typically would require landlords to impose covenants restricting local farm sales. To take advantage of the local food movement, some chains have established local market sections in their stores, but “local” can be as much as a 300-400 mile radius and farmers are  subject to their terms and whims. Many farmers have stories about working with chains. After the picture of the farm went up in the food isle, the produce orders would disappear.

Screen Shot 2015-01-22 at 6.39.33 AMHere are possible solutions to help farmers get level access to markets.

1. Encourage counties to include goals that promote local food systems in their comprehensive plans and adopt zoning ordinances that permit value-added production on farms.

2. Insist that our legislators oppose trade agreements that create unfair competition for our farmers. They should not have to compete with food from countries with weak environment, labor and food safety standards.

3. Work with businesses and government to rebuild local food aggregation systems and distribution systems, such as

  • -More local food transport systems.
  • -More indoor and year-around markets.
  • -Better market sites in towns, such as around village squares and other activity centers.

4. Tell the stories of farmers who provide great local farm products.

5. Support a food system that is sustainable and treats everyone in the food system fairly.

Giving farmers level access to markets will build the local economy, create jobs and help insure that our food is fresh and safe.

 

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Saving family farms in Maryland – the right regulatory environment

This blog is one of a series on saving family farms in Maryland. In my last post, I covered some of the typical infrastructure needs of beginning farmers. In this post, I discuss possible regulatory challenges for new agricultural entrepreneurs.

As I mentioned in a previous post, when Maryland’s health and zoning regulations were wineryfirst adopted, direct sales of farm products, value-added farm products and agri-tourism uses (such as farm weddings, corn mazes, and wine tastings) were not a significant part of the agricultural landscape and regulations were not written to allow them. The local food movement has created many new opportunities for farmers, but some counties have not updated their regulations to specifically allow the new uses.

Before you sign on the dotted line for leasing or purchasing a farm, I recommend that you visit our Zoning Tutorial, which describes the reasons for regulations, how they relate to adopted plans, and who to contact with questions and for clarifications. There are also links to county zoning regulations that are posted on the web.

To dispel any hope of simplicity, no county zoning regulations are the same. Each is patterned to address plan goals, citizen concerns, etc. The names of zoning districts differ, the definitions differ, and the review processes differ.  In addition to verifying that their farm uses are allowed by zoning, farmers should ask their attorney if there are any preservation or conservation easements that would restrict their farming activities.

Even if they pass these hurdles, farmers can face tough, expensive legal challenges if they propose a farm project that is perceived by neighbors to have an adverse impact on the use of their properties. A case in point is the Bellevale Farms Inc., an organic dairy farm on 199 acres in the Long Green Valley area of Baltimore County. The Long Green Valley Association had sued when the dairy sought and received approval to construct a creamery.

Maryland farmers can benefit from two Maryland Department of Agriculture programs if nuisance claims arise. First, most Maryland counties have adopted a Right-to-Farm law. Second, the state has a Maryland Agricultural Conflict Resolution Service to help resolve disputes with neighbors.

When a farmer is ready to undertake a new project, it pays to visit the local permit offices. I put together a simple table of the types of permits that may be needed and the agencies that may be involved.

Typical regulations only. Check with your jurisdiction to determine what regulations are required

Typical regulations only. Check with your jurisdiction to determine what regulations are required

Fortunately, there are people to help. At the Beginning Farmer Success website, they have collected contact information by county. You may also want to see if there is an Agricultural Marketing Professional in your county to help guide you through the permitting process.

Some counties have made great progress in clarifying zoning regulations that apply to

Source: The Atlantic "Why a Denver Suburb Has  Gone All-In for Farming"

Source: The Atlantic “Why a Denver Suburb Has Gone All-In for Farming”

farm enterprises. Earlier this year, I wrote about Montgomery County’s new zoning ordinance which allows agricultural uses in practically every part of the county, scaled to the development in each particular zone. I think that Calvert County does a good job of allowing a wide variety of agricultural uses in its agriculture districts (full disclosure, I helped to write it). Farm entrepreneurs can find farm use definitions, the zones where the use is allowed and the conditions that will be imposed.

More can be done if we are to save family farms in Maryland. I just read an article from The Atlantic CITYLAB about how a Denver suburb actively encourages urban farming and has streamlined its regulations. As the article states, they are experiencing an “agricultural renaissance.”

Lets hope that we are on the cusp of the same! Next week, gaining level access to markets.

 

Posted in access to farmland, Agricultural Marketing Professionals, AMPs, beginning farmers, locally sourced food, New Farmers, saving farming, Uncategorized, zoning regulations for farms | Tagged , , , , , | Comments Off

Saving family farms in Maryland – Infrastructure solutions

This blog is one of a series on saving family farms in Maryland. In my last post, I noted that young and beginning farmers often have difficulty finding land that also has the infrastructure amenities they need. In this post I cover some of the common infrastructure needs.

Access to water

Most commodity crops are not irrigated. However, just about every other crop is irrigated and livestock operations require water too. A good production well for irrigation can easily cost up to $20,000 and these wells require a permit from the Maryland Department of the Environment. Some small-scale vegetable, fruit and livestock farmers use their house well for agricultural purposes, especially if they are using drip irrigation or just watering a few animals. However, many house wells are not suited for even that level of water use.

Screen Shot 2015-01-08 at 7.42.46 PM

An example of a dug well from Durham Ca

There are other solutions. For example, if the farm happens to have a pond, it might be a source of irrigation water, but be sure to discuss this with the farm owner,  if you are leasing, and include it in your lease agreement. There are other options  but they are not well-tested  (pardon the pun!) for production. For example, most farmers are not aware that “dug” wells and “driven” wells are still permitted in Maryland. In the coastal plain, it is often possible to find a high water table and both options are much cheaper than “artesian wells. The first well for my house was a “dug” well, which consists of a stack of 3 – 4 ft. diameter concrete well curbs usually hand dug into the ground until you reach water. It took me less than a day to dig mine and then my plumber hooked up the pump. Dug wells are no longer permitted for household use but they are allowed for irrigation purposes.

For more thoughts about access to water and more about the permitting process, read our blog – Water Supply options for farmers in Maryland. 

Good fences and the right equipment

Screen Shot 2015-01-09 at 6.56.46 AMThe old adage is “Good fences make good neighbors.” When it comes to livestock operations and fruit and vegetable production in Maryland, the adage should be amended to say “good fences make successful farms.” Of course, good fences keep livestock on the farm and protected from foxes, coyotes and such. However, vegetable and fruit producers need good fences to keep a gentle four-legged animal out. Deer populations across the state are at such a level of overpopulation that they will even eat landscaping materials next to a house in urban/suburban areas. In most parts of the state, it may be futile to grow certain vegetables and fruits without a fence. Before putting in that first crop, be sure to either get assurances from neighbors that there is no deer problem, or be sure to put fencing in your farm budget and include it in your lease agreement, if leasing.

Portable electric fences have become a popular solution for “pasture-rotation” livestock producers, Screen Shot 2015-01-09 at 7.21.19 AMincluding cattle, sheep, goats, and poultry. These portable fences can be quickly set up. However, some of your pasture may need to be more permanent and secure, especially if you leave the farm often. Extension has a nice webpage about fencing options and costs.

As to farm equipment, many experts recommend caution. Don’t buy more than you are sure that you can afford or more than you really need. And “used” may be the best way to get started. To learn more, check out Extension’s Beginning Farmer Success page on equipment.

Good Road Access

This will mean different things to different farmers. For grain farmers, wholesale producers and large livestock producers, it means a road that will support heavy trucks and is virtually “weather proof.” For small-scale fruit and vegetable producers and agri-tourism ventures, it may mean access to a road with substantial traffic volumes for customers/visitors and/or a suitable location for a roadside stand.

Be sure that you have legal access to the road if you lease the property and be sure that you can get permission from the county or state if you plan to have a roadside stand and/or plan to invite customers or visitors to the site.

A House

Nearly all non-commodity farmers need a place to live on or near the land that they are farming, to provide security and the near constant maintenance of the land and its products. If the farm operator is not the owner, then it is great if there is a tenant house available for the beginning farmer.

If not, farm mobile homes are an option in some counties. However, you will need permits and, once they are purchased, they may be difficult to sell later. Currently, state and local regulations may make it difficult to provide any secondary residential accommodations on farms for beginning farm operators. Excise taxes and new septic systems can add tens of thousands dollars to the cost of housing.

An interestinScreen Shot 2015-01-09 at 7.07.27 AMg option that the state should consider would be allow mini-homes on farms as a temporary use as long as a farmer is leasing a farm. The Bridge Foundation has some interesting examples, including the one posted to the left. That is an idea that I hope to pursue with county and state officials in the next year.

A Good Lease Helps to Maintain Relationships

My friend Paul Goeringer always says that Marilu Henner is one of only a few people in the world who remembers every conversation she ever had. She has what is called a “highly superior autobiographical memory.” Everyone else forgets. If you are not one of the few, put your agreements in writing. Paul has authored a sample lease agreement that serves as a great guide for Maryland farmers.

Next week, we will talk about the right regulatory environment needed to save family farms in Maryland.

Posted in access to farmland, beginning farmers, Farm Finance, farm succession, Grass-Fed Meats, New Farmers, New Ideas in Farming, small farms, So. Maryland Topics, Sustainable Farmers, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , | Comments Off

Saving family farms in Maryland – access to land

In my last post, I noted that we do not have enough young and beginning farmers to replace those who will retiring or otherwise changing control or ownership of their farms. In this post, I will cover why they have trouble getting access to land.

afbf

Excerpt from Voice of Agriculture post on March 11, 2014

It is ironic that  young farmers who grew up on a farm listed their top challenge is securing adequate access to land, according to an American Farm Bureau Federation survey in 2014. However, if your parents are raising a thousand acres of corn or running a 300-acre dairy, they need all of that land in order to make a living.

For those who did not grow up on a farm, getting started in Maryland is more daunting. Maryland’s farmland values are roughly three times the national average, and much higher around the lucrative urban centers. It simply does not make financial sense to buy the property to farm unless one has other income sources and can consider the land as an investment to resell.

Leasing is not necessarily the go-to solution either. Farm families who no longer can farm their properties tend to reach out to other farmers that they know to lease their land. There is comfort in knowing another farmer’s history and trustworthiness and commodity farmers impose the least conditions on use of the land. They do not require fencing or irrigation to water their corn, soybeans or wheat. Since they do not need to make major investments in the land, they will accept shorter lease terms. However, most young farmers and beginning farmers (who did not grow up on a farm) cannot afford the huge tractors, combines and tractor trailers needed to produce commodity crops.

small farm posted on Maryland FarmLINK

Small farm posted on Maryland FarmLINK

Despite all of these challenges, some young farmers and beginning farmers are finding properties to farm. The reason is what I call the “affection factor.” That is, the young and beginning farmers’ affection for farming that overcomes obstacles and/or the farmland owners’ affection for these young or beginning farmers, such that make accommodations for them despite the reasons stated above. In Maryland, 603 farmers under 35 were farming as of the 2012 census, which is great, but only a fraction of the number needed to manage the Maryland farms as the older generations retire.

Some of the beginning farmers are farming properties that are not suited to large-scale agriculture, such as a three-acre lot with a field and a house, but may be perfect for a young or beginning farmer wanting to try market vegetable farming. Others have found generous farmers who have a few acres to spare. At Maryland FarmLINK, we are working with land owners and realtors throughout the state to identify those properties and post them on the Property Exchange, a free service. We provide free online resources about  zoning, land preservation easements, leasing documents, etc.  But as a society, we need to do more. We need to improve communication between young and beginning farmers and farm owners who have retired or who bought a farm but do not farm it. If you have suggestions, please email me at gbowen@smadc.com or 301-274-1922 ext. 1.

Meanwhile, if they find land to purchase or lease, will young and beginning farmers have the needed infrastructure to succeed? We will cover that in the next post.

 

 

 

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Saving family farms in Maryland

Screen Shot 2014-12-18 at 9.34.32 AMFarming in the U.S. has gone through an incredible transformation in the last century, from highly diversified to highly specialized. Over that period, we’ve gone from 6.4 million farms to 2.1 million farms. Meanwhile, average farm size in the U.S. has increased from 148 acres in 1920 to 434 acres in 2012. Over the same period, Maryland went from 47,908 farms to 12,256 farms and average farm size has increased from 100 acres to 166.

From 1997 to 2012, the number of Maryland farmers age 65 and older increased by 12 percent farmoperatorswhile the number under age 35 decreased by nearly 25 percent.

It is interesting to note that in 1920 there were roughly the same number of farm owners 65+ in Maryland as there are farm operators now. However, there were 4,081 farm owner/operators <35 in Maryland in 1920 vs 603 farm operators <35 in 2012. This raises the question- who will replace our older farmers when they retire?

farmoperators.compareIn 2008, the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) reported that 70% of U.S. farmland would change hands by 2028. Without adequate succession planning, CSREES reports that farms are more likely to go out of business, be absorbed by larger neighboring farms, or be converted for non-farm use. Studies have shown that family farms are only passed down successfully to the next generation about 30% of the time.

The next decade or so will be critical if we are to keep land in the families and/or create opportunities for others to farm.  I have been in this job as Director of Maryland FarmLINK for three years. I had hoped that by pointing out the challenges for beginning farmers, and helping them to identify farms for sale or lease, we would make great progress. We have not.

If we don’t succeed it would be a huge missed opportunity. Our region is home to the Screen Shot 2014-12-18 at 9.30.03 AMwealthiest population in the country and those residents are spending roughly $26 billion on food. We have good soils, a climate suited to produce most crops and better than average rain fall.

Either our region can benefit from those food expenditures or some other region will. But this is not just an economic issue. Great local food chains, from seed to servings, give us control over the quality of our food, food security and food safety.

The main challenges for farmers are getting access to land, having the infrastructure to farm, having the right regulatory environment and getting level access to the markets. Over the next few weeks, I will discuss the challenges and the solutions.

 

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